AskDefine | Define geographical

Dictionary Definition

geographical adj
1 of or relating to the science of geography [syn: geographic]
2 determined by geography; "the north and south geographic poles" [syn: geographic] [ant: magnetic]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Adjective

  1. of, or related to geography; geographic

Derived terms

Translations

Extensive Definition

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences. Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities-- not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches - human geography and physical geography.

Introduction

Traditionally, geographers have been viewed the same way as cartographers and people who study place names and numbers. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena, processes and feature as well as the interaction of humans and their environment. As space and place affect a variety of topics such as economics, health, climate, plants and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation & life, soil, water, and landforms are produced and interact. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans.
The first rigorous system of latitude and longitude lines is credited to Hipparchus. He employed a sexagesimal system that was derived from Babylonian mathematics. The parallels and meridians were sub-divided into 360°, with each degree further subdivided 60′ (minutes). To measure the longitude at different location on Earth, he suggested using eclipses to determine the relative difference in time. The extensive mapping by the Romans as they explored new lands would later provide a high level of information for Ptolemy to construct detailed atlases. He extended the work of Hipparchus, using a grid system on his maps and adopting a length of 56.5 miles for a degree.
During the Middle Ages, the fall of the Roman empire led to a shift in the evolution of geography from Europe to the Islamic world. Scholars such as Idrisi (produced detailed maps), Ibn Batutta, and Ibn Khaldun provided detailed accounts of their Hajj. Further, Islamic scholars translated and interpreted the earlier works of the Romans and Greeks and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad for this purpose. From the 3rd century onwards, Chinese methods of geographical study and writing of geographical literature became much more complex than what was found in Europe at the time (until the 13th century). the Royal Geographical Society in 1830, Russian Geographical Society in 1845, American Geographical Society in 1851, and the National Geographic Society in 1888. The influence of Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humbolt, Carl Ritter and Paul Vidal de la Blache can be seen as a major turning point in geography from a philosophy to an academic subject.
Over the past two centuries the advancements in technology such as computers, have led to the development of geomatics and new practices such as participant observation and geostatistics being incorporated into geography's portfolio of tools. In the West during the 20th century, the discipline of geography went through four major phases: environmental determinism, regional geography, the quantitative revolution, and critical geography. The strong interdisciplinary links between geography and the sciences of geology and botany, as well as economics, sociology and demographics have also grown greatly especially as a result of Earth System Science that seeks to understand the world in a holistic view.

Some influential geographers

References

See also

Main lists: List of basic geography topics and List of geography topics

External links

sisterlinks Geography
geographical in Extremaduran: Heugrafia
geographical in Afrikaans: Geografie
geographical in Tosk Albanian: Geografie
geographical in Abkhazian: Географи
geographical in Arabic: جغرافيا
geographical in Aragonese: Cheografía
geographical in Franco-Provençal: G·eografia
geographical in Assamese: ভূগোল
geographical in Asturian: Xeografía
geographical in Guarani: Tetãnguéra
geographical in Avaric: География
geographical in Aymara: Uraqita
geographical in Azerbaijani: Coğrafiya
geographical in Bambara: Dùgùkòlòkùnnàkalan
geographical in Bengali: ভূগোল
geographical in Banyumasan: Geografi
geographical in Bashkir: География
geographical in Belarusian: Геаграфія
geographical in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Геаграфія
bh:भूगोल
geographical in Central Bicolano: Heograpiya
geographical in Bavarian: Geografie
geographical in Bosnian: Geografija
geographical in Breton: Douaroniezh
geographical in Bulgarian: География
geographical in Catalan: Geografia
geographical in Chuvash: Географи
geographical in Cebuano: Heyograpiya
geographical in Czech: Geografie
geographical in Corsican: Geografia
geographical in Welsh: Daearyddiaeth
geographical in Danish: Geografi
geographical in German: Geographie
geographical in Dhivehi: ޖުޣުރާފީ
geographical in Estonian: Geograafia
geographical in Modern Greek (1453-): Γεωγραφία
geographical in Spanish: Geografía
geographical in Esperanto: Geografio
geographical in Basque: Geografia
geographical in Persian: جغرافیا
geographical in Faroese: Landafrøði
geographical in French: Géographie
geographical in Western Frisian: Geografy
geographical in Friulian: Gjeografie
geographical in Irish: Tíreolaíocht
geographical in Gan Chinese: 地理
geographical in Galician: Xeografía
geographical in Gujarati: ભૂગોળ
geographical in Korean: 지리학
geographical in Hindi: भूगोल
geographical in Upper Sorbian: Geografija
geographical in Croatian: Zemljopis
geographical in Ido: Geografio
geographical in Iloko: Heografia
geographical in Indonesian: Geografi
geographical in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Geographia
geographical in Interlingue: Geografie
geographical in Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᐅᔪᖅ/nunaujuq
geographical in Ossetian: Географи
geographical in Icelandic: Landafræði
geographical in Italian: Geografia
geographical in Hebrew: גאוגרפיה
geographical in Javanese: Geografi
geographical in Pampanga: Geografia
geographical in Georgian: გეოგრაფია
geographical in Kashubian: Geògrafijô
geographical in Cornish: Dorydhyeth
geographical in Kirghiz: География
geographical in Swahili (macrolanguage): Jiografia
geographical in Komi: География
geographical in Haitian: Jewografi
geographical in Kurdish: Erdnîgarî
geographical in Ladino: Jeografiya
geographical in Lao: ພູມສາດ
geographical in Latin: Geographia
geographical in Latvian: Ģeogrāfija
geographical in Luxembourgish: Geographie
geographical in Lithuanian: Geografija
geographical in Ligurian: Geografia
geographical in Limburgan: Geografie
geographical in Lingala: Mambí ma mabelé
geographical in Lombard: Geugrafìa
geographical in Hungarian: Földrajztudomány
geographical in Macedonian: Географија
geographical in Malagasy: Jeografia
geographical in Malayalam: ഭൂമിശാസ്ത്രം
geographical in Maltese: Ġeografija
geographical in Marathi: भूगोल
geographical in Mazanderani: Jəögrafi / جئوگرافی
geographical in Malay (macrolanguage): Geografi
geographical in Mongolian: Газар зүй
geographical in Burmese: ပထဝီဝင္‌
nah:Cemānāhuacāyōtl
geographical in Dutch: Aardrijkskunde
geographical in Nepali: भूगोल
geographical in Japanese: 地理学
geographical in Norwegian: Geografi
geographical in Norwegian Nynorsk: Geografi
geographical in Narom: Géographie
geographical in Novial: Geografia
geographical in Occitan (post 1500): Geografia
geographical in Ndonga: Geografi
geographical in Uzbek: Geografiya
geographical in Pushto: ځمکپوهنه
geographical in Central Khmer: ភូមិវិទ្យា
geographical in Low German: Geographie
geographical in Polish: Geografia
geographical in Portuguese: Geografia
geographical in Romanian: Geografie
geographical in Vlax Romani: Phuvipen
geographical in Romansh: Geografia
geographical in Quechua: Allpa saywachi
geographical in Russian: География
geographical in Samoan: Geography
geographical in Sardinian: Geografia
geographical in Scots: Geography
geographical in Albanian: Gjeografia
geographical in Sicilian: Giografìa
geographical in Sinhala: භූගෝල විද්‍යාව
geographical in Simple English: Geography
geographical in Slovak: Geografia
geographical in Slovenian: Geografija
geographical in Somali: Juquraafi
geographical in Serbian: Географија
geographical in Serbo-Croatian: Zemljopis
geographical in Sundanese: Géografi
geographical in Finnish: Maantiede
geographical in Swedish: Geografi
geographical in Tagalog: Heograpiya
geographical in Tamil: புவியியல்
geographical in Telugu: భూగోళ శాస్త్రము
geographical in Thai: ภูมิศาสตร์
geographical in Vietnamese: Địa lý học
geographical in Tajik: Ҷуғрофия
geographical in Tok Pisin: Jiograpi
geographical in Turkish: Coğrafya
geographical in Turkmen: Geografiýa
geographical in Ukrainian: Географія
geographical in Urdu: جغرافيہ
geographical in Venetian: Giografia
geographical in Volapük: Taledav
geographical in Võro: Maatiidüs
geographical in Walloon: Djeyografeye
geographical in Waray (Philippines): Heyograpiya
geographical in Wolof: Melosuuf
geographical in Yiddish: געאגראפיע
geographical in Contenese: 地理
geographical in Zeeuws: Heografie
geographical in Samogitian: Geuograpėjė
geographical in Chinese: 地理学

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

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